12 May 1975 – After South Vietnam fell to communist forces, the U.S. was again involved in combat in Southeast Asia. In May 1975, the Cambodian Khmer Rouge navy seized the American cargo ship SS Mayaguez and its crew of 39 in international waters.
President Gerald Ford acted decisively to rescue the crew. The Mayaguez was anchored at Koh Tang Island near the Cambodian coast, and military planners believed the crew was on the island. Air Force gunships sank three Cambodian patrol boats to prevent them from taking the Mayaguez’s crew from Koh Tang to the mainland. Soon after, Marines boarded the Mayaguez and found it abandoned.
Marines landed on Koh Tang in Air Force helicopters to rescue the crew, but incomplete intelligence made the operation a near disaster. Expecting only light opposition, the USAF helicopters instead faced heavy fire from a large force. The Cambodians shot down four helicopters, damaged five more, and killed 14 Americans. More U.S. troops and aircraft urgently moved to reinforce the 131 Marines and five USAF aircrew trapped on Koh Tang.
As the assault unfolded, the Mayaguez crew appeared in a small boat, and were rescued unharmed. President Ford halted offensive action, and the operation shifted from assault to rescuing the trapped Marines.
Another 100 Marines moved into Koh Tang to reinforce and extract the trapped Marines. Coordinated USAF support by attack aircraft, forward air controllers, rescue helicopters, and gunships pounded Cambodian targets while the Americans on the ground fought hard to maintain their positions.
Only three USAF helicopters were left to extract more than 200 troops. They tried time and again, braving fierce, accurate fire, but were repeatedly driven off. Finally, they reached the beach and recovered 129 Marines in multiple trips, landing them quickly on Navy ships and returning to the island for more. On the last trip to the beach, USAF pararescueman Tech. Sgt. Wayne Fisk left his helicopter to find two missing Marines still laying down covering fire. He led them to the helicopter, and the 14-hour rescue ended as the aircraft left under fire.
Three Marines, inadvertently left on the island in the darkness and confusion, were killed and buried there within a few days by the Khmer Rouge. Total U.S. casualties included 18 dead and 50 wounded. Twenty-three more USAF personnel died in a support force helicopter crash in Thailand due to mechanical failure.
Quick, effective action at Koh Tang by USAF, Marine, and Navy forces prevented a bad situation from becoming much worse. In particular, the persistence, determination, and heroism of USAF helicopter crews saved many lives. The action at Koh Tang between May 12-15, 1975, was the last combat in Southeast Asia for U.S. forces.
Source: National Museum of the United States Air Force , “Final Combat: The Mayaguez Incident at Koh Tang
Published May 22, 2015″